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How have you been? Here is the 9th part of our notes for preparation of GATE and other examinations related to Civil Engineering.

How have you been? Here is the 9th part of our notes for preparation of GATE and other examinations related to Civil Engineering.

- The displacement thickness of a boundary layer is the distance by which the main flow is to be shifted from the boundary to maintain the continuity equation.
- The range of specific speeds in MKS units for Francis turbine is 60-300, for Kaplan turbine is 300 - 1000; for Pelton with one jet is 10-35 and for Pelton with two jets is 35-60.
- If the height of submerged portion of a symmetrical right circular cone is 'h', then the centre of buoyancy will be at a height of 3/4(h) from the apex on the bottom side.
- Loss of head for various pipe fitting is given by (K.v^2)/(2g). The value of K in will be in increasing order for the following sequence of fitting: 45 degree elbow, 90 deg. elbow, foot valve of pump and close return bend.
- In a pipe network at a point, if a pipe diverges into two other pipes of smaller diameters and if those two again converge into one at another point, then the potential drop between these two points will be same for both of the pipes.